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Indoor secondhand tobacco smoke emission levels in six Lebanese cities

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dc.contributor.author Saade G.
dc.contributor.author Seidenberg A.B.
dc.contributor.author Rees V.W.
dc.contributor.author Otrock Z.
dc.contributor.author Connolly G.N.
dc.contributor.editor
dc.date 2010
dc.date.accessioned 2017-10-05T15:59:28Z
dc.date.available 2017-10-05T15:59:28Z
dc.date.issued 2010
dc.identifier 10.1136/tc.2009.030460
dc.identifier.isbn
dc.identifier.issn 09644563
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10938/19025
dc.description.abstract Background: To date, Lebanon has failed to enact comprehensive clean indoor air laws despite ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which calls for the protection of non-smokers from exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). Complicating the problem of SHS exposure in Lebanon is the widespread use of the tobacco water-pipe. While most research on SHS has involved cigarette smoking as a source of emissions, other sources, including tobacco water-pipes, may be an important contributor. Methods: PM2.5 concentrations (μg-m3) were measured in a sample of 28 public venues located in six major Lebanese cities. Active smoker density (number of smokers-100 m3) was calculated for both Water-pipe and cigarette smokers. Venues were then categorised as having higher density of Water-pipe smokers or higher density of cigarette smokers, and resultant emission levels were compared between the two groups. Results: Cigarette and Water-pipe smoking was observed in 14 venues, while cigarette smoking only and Water-pipe smoking only were found in 12 venues and one venue, respectively. Among all smoking-permitted venues, the mean PM2.5 concentration was 342 μg-m3. Venues with a higher density of Water-pipe smokers (n=14) showed a similar median PM2.5 concentration (349 μg-m3) compared with venues with a higher density of cigarette smokers (n=13; 241 μg-m3; p=0.159). The mean PM2.5 concentration in the single venue with a voluntary smoke-free policy was 6 μg-m3. Conclusions: Despite ratification of the FCTC in 2005, both cigarette and Water-pipe smoking are commonly practised in enclosed public places throughout Lebanon, leading to unsafe levels of indoor particulate pollution. Smoke-free policies are needed in Lebanon to protect the public's health, and should apply to all forms of tobacco smoking.
dc.format.extent
dc.format.extent Pages: (138-142)
dc.language English
dc.publisher LONDON
dc.relation.ispartof Publication Name: Tobacco Control; Publication Year: 2010; Volume: 19; no. 2; Pages: (138-142);
dc.relation.ispartofseries
dc.relation.uri
dc.source Scopus
dc.subject.other
dc.title Indoor secondhand tobacco smoke emission levels in six Lebanese cities
dc.type Article
dc.contributor.affiliation Saade, G., Faculty of Public Health, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon
dc.contributor.affiliation Seidenberg, A.B., Harvard School of Public Health, Division of Public Health Practice, Boston, MA, United States
dc.contributor.affiliation Rees, V.W., Harvard School of Public Health, Division of Public Health Practice, Boston, MA, United States
dc.contributor.affiliation Otrock, Z., Department of Pathology, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon
dc.contributor.affiliation Connolly, G.N., Harvard School of Public Health, Division of Public Health Practice, Boston, MA, United States
dc.contributor.authorAddress Rees, V. W.; Harvard School of Public Health, Division of Public Health Practice, Landmark Building, Level 3 East, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, Lebanon; email: vrees@hsph.harvard.edu
dc.contributor.authorCorporate University: American University of Beirut Medical Center; Faculty: Faculty of Medicine; Department: Pathology and Laboratory Medicine;
dc.contributor.authorDepartment Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
dc.contributor.authorDivision
dc.contributor.authorEmail vrees@hsph.harvard.edu
dc.contributor.authorFaculty Faculty of Medicine
dc.contributor.authorInitials Saade, G
dc.contributor.authorInitials Seidenberg, AB
dc.contributor.authorInitials Rees, VW
dc.contributor.authorInitials Otrock, Z
dc.contributor.authorInitials Connolly, GN
dc.contributor.authorOrcidID
dc.contributor.authorReprintAddress Rees, VW (reprint author), Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Div Publ Hlth Practice, Landmark Bldg,Level 3 E,677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
dc.contributor.authorResearcherID
dc.contributor.authorUniversity American University of Beirut Medical Center
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dc.description.citedCount 7
dc.description.citedTotWOSCount 8
dc.description.citedWOSCount 7
dc.format.extentCount 5
dc.identifier.articleNo
dc.identifier.coden
dc.identifier.pubmedID 20378588
dc.identifier.scopusID 77954500305
dc.identifier.url
dc.publisher.address BRITISH MED ASSOC HOUSE, TAVISTOCK SQUARE, LONDON WC1H 9JR, ENGLAND
dc.relation.ispartofConference
dc.relation.ispartofConferenceCode
dc.relation.ispartofConferenceDate
dc.relation.ispartofConferenceHosting
dc.relation.ispartofConferenceLoc
dc.relation.ispartofConferenceSponsor
dc.relation.ispartofConferenceTitle
dc.relation.ispartofFundingAgency
dc.relation.ispartOfISOAbbr Tob. Control
dc.relation.ispartOfIssue 2
dc.relation.ispartOfPart
dc.relation.ispartofPubTitle Tobacco Control
dc.relation.ispartofPubTitleAbbr Tob. Control
dc.relation.ispartOfSpecialIssue
dc.relation.ispartOfSuppl
dc.relation.ispartOfVolume 19
dc.source.ID WOS:000276418400016
dc.type.publication Journal
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword
dc.subject.otherChemCAS Air Pollutants
dc.subject.otherChemCAS Particulate Matter
dc.subject.otherChemCAS Tobacco Smoke Pollution
dc.subject.otherIndex air pollutant
dc.subject.otherIndex article
dc.subject.otherIndex environmental monitoring
dc.subject.otherIndex human
dc.subject.otherIndex Lebanon
dc.subject.otherIndex legal aspect
dc.subject.otherIndex occupational exposure
dc.subject.otherIndex particulate matter
dc.subject.otherIndex passive smoking
dc.subject.otherIndex psychological aspect
dc.subject.otherIndex smoking
dc.subject.otherIndex urban population
dc.subject.otherIndex Air Pollutants
dc.subject.otherIndex Environmental Monitoring
dc.subject.otherIndex Humans
dc.subject.otherIndex Lebanon
dc.subject.otherIndex Occupational Exposure
dc.subject.otherIndex Particulate Matter
dc.subject.otherIndex Smoking
dc.subject.otherIndex Tobacco Smoke Pollution
dc.subject.otherIndex Urban Population
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus PARTICULATE AIR-POLLUTION
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus PUBLIC PLACES
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus WATER PIPE
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus BAN
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus AEROSOL
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus BARS
dc.subject.otherWOS Public, Environmental and Occupational Health


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