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Breast-feeding and feeding practices of infants in a developing country: A national survey in Lebanon

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dc.contributor.author Batal M.
dc.contributor.author Boulghourjian C.
dc.contributor.author Abdallah A.
dc.contributor.author Afifi R.
dc.contributor.editor
dc.date 2006
dc.date.accessioned 2017-10-18T13:24:15Z
dc.date.available 2017-10-18T13:24:15Z
dc.date.issued 2006
dc.identifier 10.1079/PHN2006860
dc.identifier.issn 13689800
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10938/20235
dc.description.abstract Objective: Breast-feeding (BF) provides the ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants. The prevalence of BF in Lebanon shows mixed results. The present study was the first large-scale, extensive survey on BF parameters in Lebanon that aimed to explore demographic, socio-economic and other fundamental issues associated with the initiation and duration of BF by Lebanese mothers. Design: The survey was cross-sectional in design and administered over 10 months. Setting: Information on all variables was collected from mothers at health centres. Subjects: Two-stage sampling was conducted to select participants. A total of 1000 participants were randomly selected. A consent form was provided to each participant. Data were collected from 830 of these. Results: Almost all mothers were Lebanese, married and had given birth in a hospital. About a third stated that breast milk was the first food introduced after birth. Although 55.9percent started breast-feeding their newborns within a few hours after birth, and 18.3percent within half an hour, 21.2percent replied that they initiated BF a few days after birth. Only 4.6percent of the mothers replied that they never breast-fed their infant. Timing of initiation of BF was associated with the type of delivery (vaginal-Caesarean section) and hospital-related factors (rooming-in, night feedings and frequency of mother-infant interaction). Of the mothers who breast-fed exclusively beyond 6 months, 86.7percent had initiated BF a few hours following delivery, while only 13.3percent had initiated BF a few days later. Compared with the exceptionally high proportion of BF initiation, exclusivity of BF was low, dropping to 52.4percent at 1 month. Exclusivity of BF was also associated with place of residence (urban-rural) and negatively associated with educational level of the mother. Duration of BF was inversely associated with the use of pain killers during delivery and maternal education. Rural mothers and those who practised exclusive BF maintained BF for a longer duration. Conclusion: Initiation rates of BF are very high in Lebanon but rates of exclusive BF are low and duration of BF is short. Future research targeting the factors associated with BF, with particular emphasis on exclusivity, is needed. For the 95.4percent of mothers who initiated BF, an ecological perspective on intervention aimed at women and their social support system is required to improve duration and exclusivity. © The Authors 2006.
dc.format.extent
dc.format.extent Pages: (313-319)
dc.language English
dc.publisher WALLINGFORD
dc.relation.ispartof Publication Name: Public Health Nutrition; Publication Year: 2006; Volume: 9; no. 3; Pages: (313-319);
dc.source Scopus
dc.title Breast-feeding and feeding practices of infants in a developing country: A national survey in Lebanon
dc.type Review
dc.contributor.affiliation Batal, M., Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, PO Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon
dc.contributor.affiliation Boulghourjian, C., Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, PO Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon
dc.contributor.affiliation Abdallah, A., Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, PO Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon
dc.contributor.affiliation Afifi, R., Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, PO Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon
dc.contributor.authorAddress Batal, M.; Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, PO Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon; email: malek.batal@aub.edu.lb
dc.contributor.authorCorporate University: American University of Beirut; Faculty: Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences; Department: Nutrition and Food Sciences;
dc.contributor.authorDepartment Nutrition and Food Sciences
dc.contributor.authorDivision
dc.contributor.authorEmail malek.batal@aub.edu.lb
dc.contributor.authorFaculty Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences
dc.contributor.authorInitials Batal, M
dc.contributor.authorInitials Boulghourjian, C
dc.contributor.authorInitials Abdallah, A
dc.contributor.authorInitials Afifi, R
dc.contributor.authorOrcidID
dc.contributor.authorReprintAddress Batal, M (reprint author), Amer Univ Beirut, Dept Nutr and Food Sci, POB 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon.
dc.contributor.authorResearcherID
dc.contributor.authorUniversity American University of Beirut
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dc.description.citedCount 26
dc.description.citedTotWOSCount 24
dc.description.citedWOSCount 22
dc.format.extentCount 7
dc.identifier.articleNo
dc.identifier.coden PHNUF
dc.identifier.pubmedID 16684382
dc.identifier.scopusID 33744942903
dc.publisher.address C-O PUBLISHING DIVISION, NOSWORTHY WAY, WALLINGFORD OX10 8DE, OXON, ENGLAND
dc.relation.ispartOfISOAbbr Public Health Nutr.
dc.relation.ispartOfIssue 3
dc.relation.ispartofPubTitle Public Health Nutrition
dc.relation.ispartofPubTitleAbbr Public Health Nutr.
dc.relation.ispartOfVolume 9
dc.source.ID WOS:000237394300007
dc.type.publication Journal
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword Breast-feeding
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword duration
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword feeding
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword infants
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword initiation
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword lebanon
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword newborns
dc.subject.otherIndex Adult
dc.subject.otherIndex baby food
dc.subject.otherIndex breast feeding
dc.subject.otherIndex breast milk
dc.subject.otherIndex cesarean section
dc.subject.otherIndex controlled study
dc.subject.otherIndex demography
dc.subject.otherIndex developing country
dc.subject.otherIndex feeding behavior
dc.subject.otherIndex female
dc.subject.otherIndex health survey
dc.subject.otherIndex human
dc.subject.otherIndex lebanon
dc.subject.otherIndex mother child relation
dc.subject.otherIndex priority journal
dc.subject.otherIndex review
dc.subject.otherIndex socioeconomics
dc.subject.otherIndex vaginal delivery
dc.subject.otherIndex adult
dc.subject.otherIndex breast feeding
dc.subject.otherIndex cross-sectional studies
dc.subject.otherIndex developing countries
dc.subject.otherIndex educational status
dc.subject.otherIndex female
dc.subject.otherIndex humans
dc.subject.otherIndex infant
dc.subject.otherIndex infant care
dc.subject.otherIndex infant food
dc.subject.otherIndex infant nutrition physiology
dc.subject.otherIndex infant, newborn
dc.subject.otherIndex lebanon
dc.subject.otherIndex male
dc.subject.otherIndex mothers
dc.subject.otherIndex rural population
dc.subject.otherIndex socioeconomic factors
dc.subject.otherIndex time factors
dc.subject.otherIndex urban population
dc.subject.otherIndex weaning
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus German infants
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus children
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus growth
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus population
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus patterns
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus illness
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus health
dc.subject.otherWOS Public, Environmental and Occupational Health
dc.subject.otherWOS Nutrition and Dietetics
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/PHN2006860


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