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Impact of lysine-fortified wheat flour on morbidity and immunologic variables among members of rural families in northwest Syria

Show simple item record Ghosh S. Pellett P.L. Aw-Hassan A. Mouneime Y. Smriga M. Scrimshaw N.S.
dc.contributor.editor 2008 2017-10-18T13:27:44Z 2017-10-18T13:27:44Z 2008
dc.identifier.issn 3795721
dc.description.abstract Background. Previous studies have shown an effect of lysine fortification on nutrition and immunity of poor men, women, and children consuming a predominantly wheat-based diet. Objective. To examine the lysine value of diets and the effect of lysine fortification on functional protein status, anthropometry, and morbidity of men, women, and children in rural Syria. Methods. At baseline of a two-phase study using 7-day household food intake inventories (n = 98), nutrient availabilities per adult male equivalent were estimated. In the intervention phase, a 16-week double-blind trial, households (n = 106) were randomly assigned to control and lysine groups. Hematologic and anthropometric data were collected from men (n = 69; 31 control, 38 lysine), women (n = 99; 51 control, 48 lysine), and children (n = 69; 37 control, 32 lysine) at baseline, 12 weeks, and 16 weeks. Total CD3 T lymphocytes as well as T lymphocytes bearing the receptors CD4, CD8, and CD56, IgM, IgG, IgA, complement C3, C-reactive protein, serum albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, retinol-binding protein, hemoglobin, and hepatitis B surface antigen were determined. Health status and flour usage were monitored. Paired- and independent-sample t-tests and chi-square tests were performed. Results. Mean nutrient availability per adult equivalent was 2,650 ± 806 kcal, 70.1 ± 26.4 g protein, 65 ± 14percent cereal protein, and 41.9 ± 0.8 mg lysine per gram of protein. Complement C3 was significantly higher in men receiving lysine than in controls (p .05). Among women, there were significant differences between the control and lysine groups in diarrhea period prevalence (total number of diarrheal episodes during the period of intervention divided by the total number of observations), (20 in the control group, 6 in the lysine group; p = .014), the mean number of days ill (0.4 ± 0.7, control, 0.14 ± 0.4, lysine, p = 0.03), and the number of diarrheal episodes per person per year (1.39 in the control group, 0.47 in the lysine group). No other significant differences between the lysine and the control groups were observed. Conclusions. Lysine fortification of wheat flour demonstrated a positive effect on diarrheal morbidity in women. The effect could be attributed to an improvement in protein utilization but possibly also to a direct effect of lysine in gastrointestinal tract. Studies in populations with higher diarrheal prevalence and significant dietary lysine deficiency are needed to determine whether the reported effects on diarrheal prevalence are replicable and whether they are pharmacological or nutritional. It would be particularly desirable to study the effect of lysine on diarrhea in preschool children, who have much higher morbidity and mortality rates from this disease than school-age children or adults. © 2008, The United Nations University.
dc.format.extent Pages: (163-171)
dc.language English
dc.publisher BOSTON
dc.relation.ispartof Publication Name: Food and Nutrition Bulletin; Publication Year: 2008; Volume: 29; no. 3; Pages: (163-171);
dc.source Scopus
dc.title Impact of lysine-fortified wheat flour on morbidity and immunologic variables among members of rural families in northwest Syria
dc.type Article
dc.contributor.affiliation Ghosh, S., International Nutrition Foundation, 150 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, United States, Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA, United States
dc.contributor.affiliation Pellett, P.L., Department of Nutrition, Chenoweth Laboratory, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, United States
dc.contributor.affiliation Aw-Hassan, A., NRMP, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Aleppo, Syrian Arab Republic
dc.contributor.affiliation Mouneime, Y., Central Research Science Laboratory, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon
dc.contributor.affiliation Smriga, M., Ajinomoto Europe SAS, Paris, France
dc.contributor.affiliation Scrimshaw, N.S., International Nutrition Foundation, 150 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, United States
dc.contributor.authorAddress Ghosh, S.; International Nutrition Foundation, 150 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, United States; email:
dc.contributor.authorCorporate University: American University of Beirut; Faculty: Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences; Department: FAFS;
dc.contributor.authorDepartment FAFS
dc.contributor.authorFaculty Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences
dc.contributor.authorInitials Ghosh, S
dc.contributor.authorInitials Pellett, PL
dc.contributor.authorInitials Aw-Hassan, A
dc.contributor.authorInitials Mouneime, Y
dc.contributor.authorInitials Smriga, M
dc.contributor.authorInitials Scrimshaw, NS
dc.contributor.authorReprintAddress Ghosh, S (reprint author), Int Nutr Fdn, 150 Harrison Ave,Room 254, Boston, MA 02111 USA.
dc.contributor.authorUniversity American University of Beirut
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dc.description.citedCount 5
dc.description.citedTotWOSCount 4
dc.description.citedWOSCount 4
dc.format.extentCount 9
dc.identifier.pubmedID 18947029
dc.identifier.scopusID 53849133446
dc.publisher.address 150 HARRISON AVE, BOSTON, MA 02111 USA
dc.relation.ispartOfISOAbbr Food Nutr. Bull.
dc.relation.ispartOfIssue 3
dc.relation.ispartofPubTitle Food and Nutrition Bulletin
dc.relation.ispartofPubTitleAbbr Food Nutr. Bull.
dc.relation.ispartOfVolume 29
dc.source.ID WOS:000259946500002
dc.type.publication Journal
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword Complement c3
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword diarrhea
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword flour fortification
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword immunity in women
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword lysine
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword morbidity
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword protein
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword syria
dc.subject.otherChemCAS C reactive protein, 9007-41-4
dc.subject.otherChemCAS complement component c3, 80295-41-6
dc.subject.otherChemCAS lysine, 56-87-1, 6899-06-5, 70-54-2
dc.subject.otherChemCAS c-reactive protein, 9007-41-4
dc.subject.otherChemCAS complement c3
dc.subject.otherChemCAS dietary proteins
dc.subject.otherChemCAS lysine, 56-87-1
dc.subject.otherIndex C reactive protein
dc.subject.otherIndex complement component c3
dc.subject.otherIndex lysine
dc.subject.otherIndex diarrheal disease
dc.subject.otherIndex diet
dc.subject.otherIndex disease prevalence
dc.subject.otherIndex health impact
dc.subject.otherIndex health status
dc.subject.otherIndex nutrition
dc.subject.otherIndex nutritional status
dc.subject.otherIndex nutritive value
dc.subject.otherIndex wheat
dc.subject.otherIndex womens health
dc.subject.otherIndex adolescent
dc.subject.otherIndex adult
dc.subject.otherIndex article
dc.subject.otherIndex body mass
dc.subject.otherIndex child
dc.subject.otherIndex clinical trial
dc.subject.otherIndex controlled clinical trial
dc.subject.otherIndex controlled study
dc.subject.otherIndex diarrhea
dc.subject.otherIndex diet supplementation
dc.subject.otherIndex double blind procedure
dc.subject.otherIndex female
dc.subject.otherIndex flour
dc.subject.otherIndex human
dc.subject.otherIndex infant
dc.subject.otherIndex lymphocyte count
dc.subject.otherIndex male
dc.subject.otherIndex nutritional status
dc.subject.otherIndex nutritional value
dc.subject.otherIndex pregnancy
dc.subject.otherIndex preschool child
dc.subject.otherIndex protein intake
dc.subject.otherIndex randomized controlled trial
dc.subject.otherIndex respiratory tract disease
dc.subject.otherIndex rural population
dc.subject.otherIndex standard
dc.subject.otherIndex syrian arab republic
dc.subject.otherIndex t lymphocyte
dc.subject.otherIndex utilization review
dc.subject.otherIndex wheat
dc.subject.otherIndex adolescent
dc.subject.otherIndex adult
dc.subject.otherIndex body mass index
dc.subject.otherIndex c-reactive protein
dc.subject.otherIndex child
dc.subject.otherIndex child, preschool
dc.subject.otherIndex complement c3
dc.subject.otherIndex diarrhea
dc.subject.otherIndex dietary proteins
dc.subject.otherIndex double-blind method
dc.subject.otherIndex female
dc.subject.otherIndex flour
dc.subject.otherIndex food, fortified
dc.subject.otherIndex humans
dc.subject.otherIndex infant
dc.subject.otherIndex lymphocyte count
dc.subject.otherIndex lysine
dc.subject.otherIndex male
dc.subject.otherIndex nutritional status
dc.subject.otherIndex nutritive value
dc.subject.otherIndex pregnancy
dc.subject.otherIndex respiratory tract diseases
dc.subject.otherIndex rural population
dc.subject.otherIndex syria
dc.subject.otherIndex t-lymphocytes
dc.subject.otherIndex triticum
dc.subject.otherIndex triticum aestivum
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus Amino acid supplementation
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus cereal proteins
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus nitrogen retention
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus young children
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus nutritional-status
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus anxiety
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus corn
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus rats
dc.subject.otherWOS Food Science and Technology
dc.subject.otherWOS Nutrition and Dietetics

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