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Decentralized approaches to wastewater treatment and management: Applicability in developing countries

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dc.contributor.author Massoud M.A.
dc.contributor.author Tarhini A.
dc.contributor.author Nasr J.A.
dc.contributor.editor
dc.date 2009
dc.date.accessioned 2017-10-18T13:31:57Z
dc.date.available 2017-10-18T13:31:57Z
dc.date.issued 2009
dc.identifier 10.1016/j.jenvman.2008.07.001
dc.identifier.issn 3014797
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10938/20481
dc.description.abstract Providing reliable and affordable wastewater treatment in rural areas is a challenge in many parts of the world, particularly in developing countries. The problems and limitations of the centralized approaches for wastewater treatment are progressively surfacing. Centralized wastewater collection and treatment systems are costly to build and operate, especially in areas with low population densities and dispersed households. Developing countries lack both the funding to construct centralized facilities and the technical expertise to manage and operate them. Alternatively, the decentralized approach for wastewater treatment which employs a combination of onsite and-or cluster systems is gaining more attention. Such an approach allows for flexibility in management, and simple as well as complex technologies are available. The decentralized system is not only a long-term solution for small communities but is more reliable and cost effective. This paper presents a review of the various decentralized approaches to wastewater treatment and management. A discussion as to their applicability in developing countries, primarily in rural areas, and challenges faced is emphasized all through the paper. While there are many impediments and challenges towards wastewater management in developing countries, these can be overcome by suitable planning and policy implementation. Understanding the receiving environment is crucial for technology selection and should be accomplished by conducting a comprehensive site evaluation process. Centralized management of the decentralized wastewater treatment systems is essential to ensure they are inspected and maintained regularly. Management strategies should be site specific accounting for social, cultural, environmental and economic conditions in the target area. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
dc.format.extent
dc.format.extent Pages: (652-659)
dc.language English
dc.publisher LONDON
dc.relation.ispartof Publication Name: Journal of Environmental Management; Publication Year: 2009; Volume: 90; no. 1; Pages: (652-659);
dc.source Scopus
dc.title Decentralized approaches to wastewater treatment and management: Applicability in developing countries
dc.type Article
dc.contributor.affiliation Massoud, M.A., Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, Bliss Street, Beirut, Lebanon
dc.contributor.affiliation Tarhini, A., Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon
dc.contributor.affiliation Nasr, J.A., Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, Bliss Street, Beirut, Lebanon
dc.contributor.authorAddress Massoud, M.A.; Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, Bliss Street, Beirut, Lebanon; email: mm35@aub.edu.lb
dc.contributor.authorCorporate University: American University of Beirut; Faculty: Faculty of Health Sciences; Department: Environmental Health;
dc.contributor.authorDepartment Environmental Health
dc.contributor.authorDivision
dc.contributor.authorEmail mm35@aub.edu.lb
dc.contributor.authorFaculty Faculty of Health Sciences
dc.contributor.authorInitials Massoud, MA
dc.contributor.authorInitials Tarhini, A
dc.contributor.authorInitials Nasr, JA
dc.contributor.authorOrcidID
dc.contributor.authorReprintAddress Massoud, MA (reprint author), Amer Univ Beirut, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Environm Hlth, POB 11-0236,Bliss St, Beirut, Lebanon.
dc.contributor.authorResearcherID
dc.contributor.authorUniversity American University of Beirut
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dc.description.citedCount 64
dc.description.citedTotWOSCount 61
dc.description.citedWOSCount 59
dc.format.extentCount 8
dc.identifier.articleNo
dc.identifier.coden JEVMA
dc.identifier.pubmedID 18701206
dc.identifier.scopusID 55249122874
dc.publisher.address 24-28 OVAL RD, LONDON NW1 7DX, ENGLAND
dc.relation.ispartOfISOAbbr J. Environ. Manage.
dc.relation.ispartOfIssue 1
dc.relation.ispartofPubTitle Journal of Environmental Management
dc.relation.ispartofPubTitleAbbr J. Environ. Manage.
dc.relation.ispartOfVolume 90
dc.source.ID WOS:000261503400064
dc.type.publication Journal
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword Applicability
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword Decentralized management
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword Developing countries
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword Wastewater
dc.subject.otherIndex developing world
dc.subject.otherIndex environmental management
dc.subject.otherIndex management practice
dc.subject.otherIndex policy implementation
dc.subject.otherIndex rural area
dc.subject.otherIndex sewage treatment
dc.subject.otherIndex strategic approach
dc.subject.otherIndex waste management
dc.subject.otherIndex wastewater
dc.subject.otherIndex article
dc.subject.otherIndex cultural factor
dc.subject.otherIndex decentralization
dc.subject.otherIndex developing country
dc.subject.otherIndex economic aspect
dc.subject.otherIndex environmental factor
dc.subject.otherIndex funding
dc.subject.otherIndex household
dc.subject.otherIndex planning
dc.subject.otherIndex population density
dc.subject.otherIndex reliability
dc.subject.otherIndex rural area
dc.subject.otherIndex social aspect
dc.subject.otherIndex technology
dc.subject.otherIndex waste water management
dc.subject.otherIndex Conservation of Natural Resources
dc.subject.otherIndex Developing Countries
dc.subject.otherIndex Equipment Design
dc.subject.otherIndex Lebanon
dc.subject.otherIndex Politics
dc.subject.otherIndex Technology
dc.subject.otherIndex Waste Disposal, Fluid
dc.subject.otherIndex Water Purification
dc.subject.otherIndex Water Supply
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus SUSTAINABLE WATER
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus SMALL COMMUNITIES
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus PERIURBAN AREAS
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus URBAN AREAS
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus TECHNOLOGY
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus SYSTEMS
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus OPPORTUNITIES
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus GREECE
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus ONSITE
dc.subject.otherWOS Environmental Sciences
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2008.07.001


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