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Mapping the health and environmental situation in informal zones in Aleppo, Syria: Report from the Aleppo household survey

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dc.contributor.author Maziak W.
dc.contributor.author Ward K.D.
dc.contributor.author Mzayek F.
dc.contributor.author Rastam S.
dc.contributor.author Bachir M.E.
dc.contributor.author Fouad M.F.
dc.contributor.author Hammal F.
dc.contributor.author Asfar T.
dc.contributor.author Mock J.
dc.contributor.author Nuwayhid I.
dc.contributor.author Frumkin H.
dc.contributor.editor
dc.date 2005
dc.date.accessioned 2017-10-18T13:32:00Z
dc.date.available 2017-10-18T13:32:00Z
dc.date.issued 2005
dc.identifier 10.1007/s00420-005-0625-7
dc.identifier.issn 3400131
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10938/20496
dc.description.abstract Objectives: Despite large communities living in informal zones around major cities in Syria, there is currently no information on the health and environmental situations in these areas. From May to August 2004, the Syrian Center for Tobacco Studies (SCTS) conducted the first household survey aiming to provide a baseline map of main health problems and exposures affecting these communities in Aleppo, the second largest city in Syria (2,500,000 inhabitants). Methods: Information on 1,021 participants randomly selected using stratified cluster sampling were available (46percent males, mean age 34±11.7, age range 18-65 years, response rate 86percent), including self-reported health-disability, exposures, and saliva cotinine measurement. Results: Some positive findings include better than expected access to electricity, piped water, city sewage, and the use of propane for cooking. Particular areas of concern include high fertility rates, overcrowded housing conditions, and gender inequality in education and work. Household features likely to reflect negatively on residents' health include the use of diesel chimneys for heating and lack of smoking restrictions. Overall, residents of informal zones suffer from substantial physical and mental health problems and are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution. All seem to affect women and the elderly disproportionately, while men are more affected by smoking, occupational respiratory exposures, and injuries. Both infectious and non-infectious respiratory outcomes were very common among study participants. Chronic and degenerative disease, including CVD and joint problems, were a source of substantial morbidity among the studied communities. Conclusions: This study highlights major health and environmental specificities of marginalized populations living in Aleppo, where women seem to bear a disproportionate burden of poor health and disability. Smoking and exposure to tobacco smoke seem among the major exposures facing these populations. © 2005 Springer-Verlag.
dc.format.extent
dc.format.extent Pages: (547-558)
dc.language English
dc.publisher NEW YORK
dc.relation.ispartof Publication Name: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health; Publication Year: 2005; Volume: 78; no. 7; Pages: (547-558);
dc.source Scopus
dc.title Mapping the health and environmental situation in informal zones in Aleppo, Syria: Report from the Aleppo household survey
dc.type Article
dc.contributor.affiliation Maziak, W., Syrian Center for Tobacco Studies, Teshrin St., 16542 Aleppo, Syrian Arab Republic, Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Muenster, Germany
dc.contributor.affiliation Ward, K.D., Syrian Center for Tobacco Studies, Teshrin St., 16542 Aleppo, Syrian Arab Republic, Department of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, United States, Center for Community Health, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, United States
dc.contributor.affiliation Mzayek, F., Department of Epidemiology, Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, United States
dc.contributor.affiliation Rastam, S., Syrian Center for Tobacco Studies, Teshrin St., 16542 Aleppo, Syrian Arab Republic
dc.contributor.affiliation Bachir, M.E., Syrian Center for Tobacco Studies, Teshrin St., 16542 Aleppo, Syrian Arab Republic
dc.contributor.affiliation Fouad, M.F., Syrian Center for Tobacco Studies, Teshrin St., 16542 Aleppo, Syrian Arab Republic
dc.contributor.affiliation Hammal, F., Syrian Center for Tobacco Studies, Teshrin St., 16542 Aleppo, Syrian Arab Republic
dc.contributor.affiliation Asfar, T., Syrian Center for Tobacco Studies, Teshrin St., 16542 Aleppo, Syrian Arab Republic
dc.contributor.affiliation Mock, J., Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, United States
dc.contributor.affiliation Nuwayhid, I., Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon
dc.contributor.affiliation Frumkin, H., Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States
dc.contributor.authorAddress Maziak, W.; Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Muenster, Germany
dc.contributor.authorCorporate University: American University of Beirut; Faculty: Faculty of Health Sciences; Department: Environmental Health;
dc.contributor.authorDepartment Environmental Health
dc.contributor.authorDivision
dc.contributor.authorEmail
dc.contributor.authorFaculty Faculty of Health Sciences
dc.contributor.authorInitials Maziak, W
dc.contributor.authorInitials Ward, KD
dc.contributor.authorInitials Mzayek, F
dc.contributor.authorInitials Rastam, S
dc.contributor.authorInitials Bachir, ME
dc.contributor.authorInitials Fouad, MF
dc.contributor.authorInitials Hammal, F
dc.contributor.authorInitials Asfar, T
dc.contributor.authorInitials Mock, J
dc.contributor.authorInitials Nuwayhid, I
dc.contributor.authorInitials Frumkin, H
dc.contributor.authorInitials Grimsley, F
dc.contributor.authorInitials Chibli, M
dc.contributor.authorOrcidID
dc.contributor.authorReprintAddress Maziak, W (reprint author), Inst Epidemiol and Social Med, Munster, Germany.
dc.contributor.authorResearcherID
dc.contributor.authorUniversity American University of Beirut
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dc.description.citedCount 24
dc.description.citedTotWOSCount 20
dc.description.citedWOSCount 20
dc.format.extentCount 12
dc.identifier.articleNo
dc.identifier.coden IAOHD
dc.identifier.pubmedID 15999277
dc.identifier.scopusID 24044535750
dc.publisher.address 233 SPRING STREET, NEW YORK, NY 10013 USA
dc.relation.ispartOfISOAbbr Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health
dc.relation.ispartOfIssue 7
dc.relation.ispartofPubTitle International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
dc.relation.ispartofPubTitleAbbr Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health
dc.relation.ispartOfVolume 78
dc.source.ID WOS:000231673100005
dc.type.publication Journal
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword Aleppo
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword Environmental
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword Informal zones
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword Respiratory
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword Risks
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword Syria
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword Urban
dc.subject.otherChemCAS cotinine, 486-56-6
dc.subject.otherChemCAS diesel fuel, 68334-30-5
dc.subject.otherChemCAS propane, 74-98-6
dc.subject.otherIndex cotinine
dc.subject.otherIndex diesel fuel
dc.subject.otherIndex propane
dc.subject.otherIndex adult
dc.subject.otherIndex age distribution
dc.subject.otherIndex aged
dc.subject.otherIndex arthropathy
dc.subject.otherIndex article
dc.subject.otherIndex cardiovascular disease
dc.subject.otherIndex chimney
dc.subject.otherIndex chronic disease
dc.subject.otherIndex cigarette smoking
dc.subject.otherIndex cluster analysis
dc.subject.otherIndex controlled study
dc.subject.otherIndex cooking
dc.subject.otherIndex disability
dc.subject.otherIndex education
dc.subject.otherIndex electricity
dc.subject.otherIndex environmental exposure
dc.subject.otherIndex environmental health
dc.subject.otherIndex female
dc.subject.otherIndex fertility
dc.subject.otherIndex health status
dc.subject.otherIndex heating
dc.subject.otherIndex housing
dc.subject.otherIndex human
dc.subject.otherIndex indoor air pollution
dc.subject.otherIndex major clinical study
dc.subject.otherIndex male
dc.subject.otherIndex mental disease
dc.subject.otherIndex morbidity
dc.subject.otherIndex occupation
dc.subject.otherIndex occupational accident
dc.subject.otherIndex occupational exposure
dc.subject.otherIndex physical disease
dc.subject.otherIndex randomization
dc.subject.otherIndex respiratory tract disease
dc.subject.otherIndex respiratory tract infection
dc.subject.otherIndex saliva analysis
dc.subject.otherIndex saliva level
dc.subject.otherIndex self report
dc.subject.otherIndex sewage disposal
dc.subject.otherIndex sex difference
dc.subject.otherIndex Syrian Arab Republic
dc.subject.otherIndex water supply
dc.subject.otherIndex Adolescent
dc.subject.otherIndex Adult
dc.subject.otherIndex Age Factors
dc.subject.otherIndex Aged
dc.subject.otherIndex Female
dc.subject.otherIndex Fertility
dc.subject.otherIndex Health Status
dc.subject.otherIndex Health Surveys
dc.subject.otherIndex Humans
dc.subject.otherIndex Male
dc.subject.otherIndex Mental Health
dc.subject.otherIndex Middle Aged
dc.subject.otherIndex Morbidity
dc.subject.otherIndex Population Density
dc.subject.otherIndex Reference Values
dc.subject.otherIndex Sex Factors
dc.subject.otherIndex Smoking
dc.subject.otherIndex Syria
dc.subject.otherIndex Urban Population
dc.subject.otherIndex Women's Health
dc.subject.otherIndex Nicotiana tabacum
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus DEVELOPING-COUNTRIES
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus AIR-POLLUTION
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus SMOKING
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus WATERPIPE
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus MORBIDITY
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus NICOTINE
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus EPIDEMIC
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus EXPOSURE
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus COTININE
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus ADULTS
dc.subject.otherWOS Public, Environmental and Occupational Health
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00420-005-0625-7


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