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Assessment of toxic metals and phthalates in children's toys and clays

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dc.contributor.author Korfali S.I.
dc.contributor.author Sabra R.
dc.contributor.author Jurdi M.
dc.contributor.author Taleb R.I.
dc.contributor.editor
dc.date 2013
dc.date.accessioned 2017-10-18T13:32:01Z
dc.date.available 2017-10-18T13:32:01Z
dc.date.issued 2013
dc.identifier 10.1007/s00244-013-9925-1
dc.identifier.issn 904341
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10938/20500
dc.description.abstract Toxic metals and phthalates are introduced in the manufacturing of plastic toys and modeling clays. In Lebanon, inexpensive plastic toys and modeling clays (sold in dollar stores) are affordable and popular, and there is no legislation to monitor or regulate such toys. This study aimed to assess the quality of inexpensive plastic toys and modeling clays imported in Lebanon. Metal concentrations in toys, namely, zinc [not detectable (ND) to 3,708 μg-g], copper (ND to 140), chromium (ND to 75 μg-g), tin (ND to 39 μg-g), and cadmium (Cd) (ND to 20 μg-g), were lower than the European Union (EU) Directive limits, whereas lead (ND to 258 μg-g) in 10 percent of samples and antimony (Sb) (ND to 195 μg-g) in 5 percent of samples were greater than the EU limits. In modeling clays, most of the metals were lower than the EU Directive limits except for Cd and arsenic (As). Cd was detected in 83 percent of samples, with a mean level of 9.1 μg-g, which is far greater than the EU Directive limit (1.9 μg-g). The As mean level of 4.5 μg-g was greater than the EU limit (4.0 μg-g) and was detected in 9 percent of samples. Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were found in 60 percent of children's toys and 77 percent of modeling clays. Phthalic acid butyl ester had the highest-level PAE encountered and was ≤59.1 percent in one type of clay. However, among children's toys, di(4-octyl) ester terephthalic acid was the highest encountered phthalate at a concentration of 25.7 percent. The community survey indicated that 82 percent of households purchase their toys from inexpensive shops and that only 17 percent of parents were aware of the health hazard of such toys. Consequently, an intervention plan was proposed for the provision of safe toys to children. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.
dc.format.extent
dc.format.extent Pages: (368-381)
dc.language English
dc.publisher NEW YORK
dc.relation.ispartof Publication Name: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology; Publication Year: 2013; Volume: 65; no. 3; Pages: (368-381);
dc.source Scopus
dc.title Assessment of toxic metals and phthalates in children's toys and clays
dc.type Article
dc.contributor.affiliation Korfali, S.I., Natural Science Department, Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon
dc.contributor.affiliation Sabra, R., Natural Science Department, Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon
dc.contributor.affiliation Jurdi, M., Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon
dc.contributor.affiliation Taleb, R.I., Natural Science Department, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon
dc.contributor.authorAddress Korfali, S.I.; Natural Science Department, Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon; email: skorfali@lau.edu.lb
dc.contributor.authorCorporate University: American University of Beirut; Faculty: Faculty of Health Sciences; Department: Environmental Health;
dc.contributor.authorDepartment Environmental Health
dc.contributor.authorDivision
dc.contributor.authorEmail skorfali@lau.edu.lb
dc.contributor.authorFaculty Faculty of Health Sciences
dc.contributor.authorInitials Korfali, SI
dc.contributor.authorInitials Sabra, R
dc.contributor.authorInitials Jurdi, M
dc.contributor.authorInitials Taleb, RI
dc.contributor.authorOrcidID
dc.contributor.authorReprintAddress Korfali, SI (reprint author), Lebanese Amer Univ, Dept Nat Sci, Beirut, Lebanon.
dc.contributor.authorResearcherID
dc.contributor.authorUniversity American University of Beirut
dc.description.cited ADELANTADO JVG, 1993, ANAL CHIM ACTA, V276, P39; Biedermann-Brem S, 2008, CHROMATOGRAPHIA, V68, P227, DOI 10.1365-s10337-008-0672-9; Borling P, 2006, SURVEY MIGRATION HLT; Chen ML, 2008, ENVIRON INT, V34, P79, DOI 10.1016-j.envint.2007.07.004; Earls AO, 2003, J CHROMATOGR A, V983, P237, DOI 10.1016-S0021-9673(02)01736-3; EN (British Standards), 2006, 713 BS EN EUR COMM S; Guney M, 2011, ENVIRON SCI TECHNOL, V45, P3819, DOI 10.1021-es200810s; Guney M, 2012, ENVIRON SCI TECHNOL, V46, P4265, DOI 10.1021-es203470x; Heudorf U, 2007, INT J HYG ENVIR HEAL, V210, P623, DOI 10.1016-j.ijheh.2007.07.011; Kalnicky DJ, 2001, J HAZARD MATER, V83, P93, DOI 10.1016-S0304-3894(00)00330-7; Kawamura Y, 2009, J FOOD HYG SOC JPN, V50, P93; Kevin M, 2012, REGUL TOXICOL PHARM, V62, P248; Kumar A, 2007, CURR SCI INDIA, V93, P818; NTP-CERHR, 2000, NTP CERHR EXP PAN RE; Omolaoye JA, 2010, J ENV CHEM ECOTOXICO, V2, P126; RASTOGI SC, 1992, B ENVIRON CONTAM TOX, V48, P289; Rastogi SC, 1996, B ENVIRON CONTAM TOX, V56, P527; Soares EP, 2005, J RADIOANAL NUCL CH, V264, P9, DOI 10.1007-s10967-005-0667-z; Stanley MK, 2003, HDB ENV CHEM; United States Food and Drug Administration, 2002, SAF ASS DI 2 ETH PHT
dc.description.citedCount 3
dc.description.citedTotWOSCount 4
dc.description.citedWOSCount 4
dc.format.extentCount 14
dc.identifier.articleNo
dc.identifier.coden AECTC
dc.identifier.pubmedID 23780492
dc.identifier.scopusID 84892619882
dc.publisher.address 233 SPRING ST, NEW YORK, NY 10013 USA
dc.relation.ispartOfISOAbbr Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
dc.relation.ispartOfIssue 3
dc.relation.ispartofPubTitle Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
dc.relation.ispartofPubTitleAbbr Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
dc.relation.ispartOfVolume 65
dc.source.ID WOS:000324074200002
dc.type.publication Journal
dc.subject.otherChemCAS antimony, 14374-79-9, 7440-36-0
dc.subject.otherChemCAS cadmium, 22537-48-0, 7440-43-9
dc.subject.otherChemCAS chromium, 14092-98-9, 16065-83-1, 7440-47-3
dc.subject.otherChemCAS copper, 15158-11-9, 7440-50-8
dc.subject.otherChemCAS lead, 13966-28-4, 7439-92-1
dc.subject.otherChemCAS phthalic acid, 88-99-3
dc.subject.otherChemCAS terephthalic acid, 100-21-0
dc.subject.otherChemCAS zinc, 14378-32-6, 7440-66-6
dc.subject.otherIndex antimony
dc.subject.otherIndex cadmium
dc.subject.otherIndex chromium
dc.subject.otherIndex copper
dc.subject.otherIndex lead
dc.subject.otherIndex metal
dc.subject.otherIndex phthalic acid
dc.subject.otherIndex phthalic acid ester
dc.subject.otherIndex plastic
dc.subject.otherIndex terephthalic acid
dc.subject.otherIndex zinc
dc.subject.otherIndex assessment method
dc.subject.otherIndex ester
dc.subject.otherIndex European Union
dc.subject.otherIndex manufacturing
dc.subject.otherIndex metal
dc.subject.otherIndex phthalate
dc.subject.otherIndex toxicity
dc.subject.otherIndex article
dc.subject.otherIndex clay
dc.subject.otherIndex European Union
dc.subject.otherIndex health hazard
dc.subject.otherIndex Lebanon
dc.subject.otherIndex lowest income group
dc.subject.otherIndex priority journal
dc.subject.otherIndex product safety
dc.subject.otherIndex recreation
dc.subject.otherIndex risk assessment
dc.subject.otherIndex risk management
dc.subject.otherIndex toxicology
dc.subject.otherIndex toy
dc.subject.otherIndex Lebanon
dc.subject.otherIndex Aluminum Silicates
dc.subject.otherIndex Child, Preschool
dc.subject.otherIndex Environmental Exposure
dc.subject.otherIndex Environmental Monitoring
dc.subject.otherIndex Environmental Pollutants
dc.subject.otherIndex Female
dc.subject.otherIndex Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
dc.subject.otherIndex Humans
dc.subject.otherIndex Infant
dc.subject.otherIndex Lebanon
dc.subject.otherIndex Male
dc.subject.otherIndex Metals
dc.subject.otherIndex Phthalic Acids
dc.subject.otherIndex Play and Playthings
dc.subject.otherIndex Questionnaires
dc.subject.otherIndex Risk Assessment
dc.subject.otherIndex Socioeconomic Factors
dc.subject.otherIndex Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus PLASTIC MATERIALS
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus MIGRATION
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus CADMIUM
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus LEAD
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus PRODUCTS
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus EXPOSURE
dc.subject.otherWOS Environmental Sciences
dc.subject.otherWOS Toxicology
dc.identifier.doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-013-9925-1


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