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Prevalence and patterns of commonly abused psychoactive prescription drugs in a sample of university students from Lebanon: An opportunity for cross-cultural comparisons

Show simple item record Ghandour L.A. El Sayed D.S. Martins S.S.
dc.contributor.editor 2012 2017-10-18T13:33:56Z 2017-10-18T13:33:56Z 2012
dc.identifier 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.08.021
dc.identifier.issn 3768716
dc.description.abstract Background: Concerns about psychoactive prescription drug abuse among youth are growing worldwide, but the majority of published studies remain from the US and Canada impeding cross-cultural comparisons. This study examines the prevalence, sources, motivations and substance-use correlates of commonly abused medications among youth from Lebanon. Methods: An IRB-approved cross-sectional study was conducted (May 2010) at the American University of Beirut. Proportionate cluster sampling was used to generate a representative sample of AUB students (n=570). A self-filled anonymous questionnaire was administered. Results: Lifetime medical and nonmedical prevalence of medications were (respectively): pain (36.9percent, 15.1percent), anxiety (8.3percent, 4.6percent), sleeping (6.5percent, 5.8percent) and stimulants (2.6percent, 3.5percent). Gender differences were not observed. Lebanese were least likely to report non-medical use. Nonmedical users mostly used the drugs for their intended purpose (e.g., sleeping to help in sleep, stimulants to increase alertness). Parents and pharmacists (without a doctor's prescription) were the top two sources of all medications, except for stimulants (friends predominated). Diversion was observed in about 20percent of the medical users. Lifetime marijuana users and past year alcohol abusers were three times as likely to use any prescription drug nonmedically. Conclusions: In Lebanon, as in Western cultures, a considerable proportion of youth may be self-medicating. The absence of medical supervision coupled with motivations such as to get high renders this issue a high priority on the national youth agenda. Besides larger more comprehensive surveys, the findings signal the immediate need to reinforce relevant policies, and raise awareness among youth, parents, health professionals and other stakeholders. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
dc.format.extent Pages: (110-117)
dc.language English
dc.publisher CLARE
dc.relation.ispartof Publication Name: Drug and Alcohol Dependence; Publication Year: 2012; Volume: 121; no. 41641; Pages: (110-117);
dc.source Scopus
dc.title Prevalence and patterns of commonly abused psychoactive prescription drugs in a sample of university students from Lebanon: An opportunity for cross-cultural comparisons
dc.type Article
dc.contributor.affiliation Ghandour, L.A., Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, American University of Beirut, 1107-2020, Lebanon
dc.contributor.affiliation El Sayed, D.S., Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, American University of Beirut, 1107-2020, Lebanon
dc.contributor.affiliation Martins, S.S., Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205-1900, United States
dc.contributor.authorAddress Ghandour, L.A.; Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, Van Dyck, Riad El-Solh, 1107-2020, PO Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon; email:
dc.contributor.authorCorporate University: American University of Beirut; Faculty: Faculty of Health Sciences; Department: Epidemiology and Population Health;
dc.contributor.authorDepartment Epidemiology and Population Health
dc.contributor.authorFaculty Faculty of Health Sciences
dc.contributor.authorInitials Ghandour, LA
dc.contributor.authorInitials El Sayed, DS
dc.contributor.authorInitials Martins, SS
dc.contributor.authorReprintAddress Ghandour, LA (reprint author), Amer Univ Beirut, Dept Epidemiol and Populat Hlth, Fac Hlth Sci, Off Room 207,POB 11-0236, Beirut 11072020, Lebanon.
dc.contributor.authorResearcherID Martins, Silvia-C-9405-2014
dc.contributor.authorUniversity American University of Beirut
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dc.description.citedCount 7
dc.description.citedTotWOSCount 11
dc.description.citedWOSCount 11
dc.format.extentCount 8
dc.identifier.coden DADED
dc.identifier.pubmedID 21924844
dc.identifier.scopusID 84855889990
dc.relation.ispartOfISOAbbr Drug Alcohol Depend.
dc.relation.ispartOfIssue 41641
dc.relation.ispartofPubTitle Drug and Alcohol Dependence
dc.relation.ispartofPubTitleAbbr Drug Alcohol Depend.
dc.relation.ispartOfVolume 121
dc.source.ID WOS:000300334500016
dc.type.publication Journal
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword Diversion
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword Lebanon
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword Nonmedical use
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword Prescription drugs
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword Self-medication
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword Students
dc.subject.otherChemCAS Analgesics
dc.subject.otherChemCAS Prescription Drugs
dc.subject.otherChemCAS Psychotropic Drugs
dc.subject.otherIndex analgesic agent
dc.subject.otherIndex anxiolytic agent
dc.subject.otherIndex central stimulant agent
dc.subject.otherIndex psychotropic agent
dc.subject.otherIndex sedative agent
dc.subject.otherIndex adult
dc.subject.otherIndex alcohol abuse
dc.subject.otherIndex article
dc.subject.otherIndex cannabis addiction
dc.subject.otherIndex cross-sectional study
dc.subject.otherIndex cultural factor
dc.subject.otherIndex drug abuse
dc.subject.otherIndex female
dc.subject.otherIndex friend
dc.subject.otherIndex human
dc.subject.otherIndex juvenile
dc.subject.otherIndex Lebanon
dc.subject.otherIndex male
dc.subject.otherIndex motivation
dc.subject.otherIndex parent
dc.subject.otherIndex pharmacist
dc.subject.otherIndex prescription
dc.subject.otherIndex prevalence
dc.subject.otherIndex priority journal
dc.subject.otherIndex risk factor
dc.subject.otherIndex sex difference
dc.subject.otherIndex university student
dc.subject.otherIndex Analgesics
dc.subject.otherIndex Cross-Cultural Comparison
dc.subject.otherIndex Cross-Sectional Studies
dc.subject.otherIndex Female
dc.subject.otherIndex Humans
dc.subject.otherIndex Lebanon
dc.subject.otherIndex Male
dc.subject.otherIndex Prescription Drugs
dc.subject.otherIndex Prevalence
dc.subject.otherIndex Psychotropic Drugs
dc.subject.otherIndex Questionnaires
dc.subject.otherIndex Self Medication
dc.subject.otherIndex Students
dc.subject.otherIndex Substance-Related Disorders
dc.subject.otherIndex Universities
dc.subject.otherIndex Young Adult
dc.subject.otherIndex Cannabis sativa
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus NONMEDICAL USE
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus UNITED-STATES
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus COLLEGE-STUDENTS
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus ILLICIT USE
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus NATIONAL-SURVEY
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus DIVERSION
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus ADOLESCENTS
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus OPIOIDS
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus MEDICATION
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus MOTIVES
dc.subject.otherWOS Substance Abuse
dc.subject.otherWOS Psychiatry

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