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The rise in narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco smoking: A qualitative study of perceptions of smokers and non smokers

Show simple item record Nakkash R.T. Khalil J. Afifi R.A.
dc.contributor.editor 2011 2017-10-18T13:37:06Z 2017-10-18T13:37:06Z 2011
dc.identifier 10.1186/1471-2458-11-315
dc.identifier.issn 14712458
dc.description.abstract Background: The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) in the Middle East region and worldwide is increasing. There is evidence to indicate both short term and long term health effects of WTS, resulting in the issuance of an advisory note by the World Health Organization. Methods. This research aimed at gaining an in-depth understanding of the factors contributing to the rise in WTS in Lebanon. Qualitative focus groups (25) and in-depth interviews (9) were conducted with adults in Lebanon in 2007. Participants were recruited to represent diversity in smoking status, gender, age groups and urban-rural residence. The interviews and focus groups were thematically analyzed, and recurrent themes noted and summarized. Results: The main themes identified were availability, affordability, innovation, influence of media, lack of a policy framework, and the sensory characteristics evoked from WTS. Men and women, smokers and non-smokers, and younger and older participants differed in their emphases on the above themes. These themes, though specific to waterpipe, are similar to themes manipulated by the cigarette industry, and eventually controlled through tobacco control policies. Conclusions: Understanding reasons behind the rise in waterpipe tobacco use is important if appropriate prevention, cessation, and policy interventions are to be formulated. Strict adherence to the FCTC is warranted, with careful and vigilant attention that all tobacco products are covered by laws in both high as well as middle to lower income countries. © 2011 Nakkash et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
dc.language English
dc.publisher LONDON
dc.relation.ispartof Publication Name: BMC Public Health; Publication Year: 2011; Volume: 11;
dc.source Scopus
dc.title The rise in narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco smoking: A qualitative study of perceptions of smokers and non smokers
dc.type Article
dc.contributor.affiliation Nakkash, R.T., Department of Health Promotion and Community Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon
dc.contributor.affiliation Khalil, J., Department of Health Promotion and Community Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon
dc.contributor.affiliation Afifi, R.A., Department of Health Promotion and Community Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon
dc.contributor.authorAddress Afifi, R. A.; Department of Health Promotion and Community Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; email:
dc.contributor.authorCorporate University: American University of Beirut; Faculty: Faculty of Health Sciences; Department: Health Promotion and Community Health;
dc.contributor.authorDepartment Health Promotion and Community Health
dc.contributor.authorFaculty Faculty of Health Sciences
dc.contributor.authorInitials Nakkash, RT
dc.contributor.authorInitials Khalil, J
dc.contributor.authorInitials Afifi, RA
dc.contributor.authorReprintAddress Afifi, RA (reprint author), Amer Univ Beirut, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Hlth Promot and Community Hlth, Beirut, Lebanon.
dc.contributor.authorUniversity American University of Beirut
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dc.description.citedCount 27
dc.description.citedTotWOSCount 29
dc.description.citedWOSCount 28
dc.format.extentCount 1
dc.identifier.articleNo 315
dc.identifier.pubmedID 21569577
dc.identifier.scopusID 79955846353
dc.publisher.address 236 GRAYS INN RD, FLOOR 6, LONDON WC1X 8HL, ENGLAND
dc.relation.ispartOfISOAbbr BMC Public Health
dc.relation.ispartofPubTitle BMC Public Health
dc.relation.ispartofPubTitleAbbr BMC Public Health
dc.relation.ispartOfVolume 11
dc.source.ID WOS:000291550900002
dc.type.publication Journal
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword FCTC
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword Lebanon
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword Qualitative Research
dc.subject.otherAuthKeyword Waterpipe tobacco smoking
dc.subject.otherChemCAS water, 7732-18-5
dc.subject.otherChemCAS Water, 7732-18-5
dc.subject.otherIndex water
dc.subject.otherIndex adolescent
dc.subject.otherIndex adult
dc.subject.otherIndex aged
dc.subject.otherIndex article
dc.subject.otherIndex attitude to health
dc.subject.otherIndex female
dc.subject.otherIndex human
dc.subject.otherIndex information processing
dc.subject.otherIndex interview
dc.subject.otherIndex Lebanon
dc.subject.otherIndex male
dc.subject.otherIndex middle aged
dc.subject.otherIndex smoking
dc.subject.otherIndex Adolescent
dc.subject.otherIndex Adult
dc.subject.otherIndex Aged
dc.subject.otherIndex Female
dc.subject.otherIndex Focus Groups
dc.subject.otherIndex Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
dc.subject.otherIndex Humans
dc.subject.otherIndex Interviews as Topic
dc.subject.otherIndex Lebanon
dc.subject.otherIndex Male
dc.subject.otherIndex Middle Aged
dc.subject.otherIndex Smoking
dc.subject.otherIndex Water
dc.subject.otherIndex Young Adult
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus UNIVERSITY-STUDENTS
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus INDUSTRY DOCUMENTS
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus MAINSTREAM SMOKE
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus CIGARETTES
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus EPIDEMIC
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus LEBANON
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus YOUTH
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus PIPE
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus RECEPTIVITY
dc.subject.otherKeywordPlus BRANDS
dc.subject.otherWOS Public, Environmental and Occupational Health

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