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Work-related injuries among Syrian refugee child workers in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon: A gender-sensitive analysis

Show simple item record Habib, Rima R. Mikati, Diana Al-Barathie, Josleen Younes, Elio Abi Jawad, Mohammed Asmar, Khalil El Ziadee, Micheline 2023-05-04T12:28:40Z 2023-05-04T12:28:40Z 2021-09
dc.identifier.citation Habib, R. R., Mikati, D., Al-Barathie, J., Younes, E. A., Jawad, M., Asmar, K. E., & Ziadee, M. (2021). Work-related injuries among syrian refugee child workers in the bekaa valley of lebanon: A gender-sensitive analysis. PLoS ONE, 16(9 September) doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0257330
dc.identifier.uri 10.1371/journal.pone.0257330
dc.description.abstract Background: Syrian refugees in Lebanon have endured increasing hardships since the onset of the Syrian war in 2011, with many resorting to child labor. Working refugee children endure socioeconomic deprivation and harsh working conditions. This study explores the relationship between working conditions and the reporting of injuries among male and female Syrian refugee children in Lebanon and the related gender differences. Methods and findings A cross-sectional survey of Syrian refugee children working in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon was conducted in 2017. Face-to-face interviews with children (8 to 18 years) collected sociodemographic information and testimonies of their work experiences. Logistic regression tested the association between reporting of injuries and risk factors including school enrolment, field of work, means of transportation to work, age started working, number of working hours, multiple jobs, work pressure and hazards, and abuse. Analyses were stratified by gender. Of the 4090 surveyed working children, the majority reported working in agriculture (75.8%). Around a third (31.4%) reported being injured at work with a higher proportion in males. The most common reported injuries were cuts and wounds (44.9%), with males showing a higher proportion for all types of injuries compared to females. Nearly one fifth of reported injuries (19.8%) required medical attention in a hospital, with males reporting higher proportions than females for most types of injuries. The study findings revealed the association of multiple risk factors with an increased odds of reporting an injury, which included working in more than one job (AOR, 1.71; CI, 1.20-2.43; p = 0.003), working under pressure (AOR, 1.64; CI, 1.36-1.97; p<0.001), the use of sharp or heavy objects (AOR, 1.88; CI, 1.58-2.24; p<0.001), and experiencing physical abuse at work (AOR, 2.46; CI, 1.97-3.08; p<0.001). The odds of reporting an injury increased with every additional hour of work per day (AOR 1.08; CI, 1.02-1.14; p = 0.006). Most of these findings persisted in the male and female stratified models, with few exceptions. Males who went to work in a pickup truck had significantly lower odds of being injured than those who walked (AOR, 0.65; CI, 0.51-0.83; p = 0.001); this finding did not reach significance for females. Having longer work hours per day was significantly linked to higher odds of injury for females (AOR, 1.07; CI, 1.02-1.12; p = 0.008); but not for males. The main limitations of this study were its cross-sectional design and the use of self-reported variables. Conclusions This study is the first to obtain direct testimony on work-related injuries and working conditions, exploring gender differences, among Syrian refugee children in Lebanon. Results demonstrated the association between the occurrence of injury and multiple risk factors highlighting their strenuous working conditions, with some differences detected between males and females. Many injuries can be prevented through direct safety interventions and proper implementation of child labor policies. Multidimensional interventions are essential to address the complex evolving challenges facing refugees. Copyright: © 2021 Habib et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
dc.language.iso en
dc.publisher Public Library of Science
dc.subject adolescent
dc.subject adult
dc.subject age
dc.subject agriculture
dc.subject Article
dc.subject child
dc.subject child abuse
dc.subject child labor
dc.subject confidence interval
dc.subject controlled study
dc.subject cross-sectional study
dc.subject female
dc.subject human
dc.subject interview
dc.subject Lebanon
dc.subject logistic regression analysis
dc.subject male
dc.subject occupational hazard
dc.subject odds ratio
dc.subject physical abuse
dc.subject refugee
dc.subject risk assessment
dc.subject risk factor
dc.subject school
dc.subject sensitivity analysis
dc.subject sex difference
dc.subject sociodemographics
dc.subject Syrian
dc.subject traffic and transport
dc.subject work
dc.subject work disability
dc.subject work experience
dc.subject working time
dc.subject wound
dc.subject epidemiology
dc.subject family
dc.subject occupation
dc.subject occupational accident
dc.subject questionnaire
dc.subject sex factor
dc.subject social class
dc.subject Syrian Arab Republic
dc.subject Adolescent
dc.subject Child
dc.subject Child Labor
dc.subject Cross-Sectional Studies
dc.subject Family
dc.subject Female
dc.subject Humans
dc.subject Lebanon
dc.subject Male
dc.subject Occupational Injuries
dc.subject Occupations
dc.subject Refugees
dc.subject Sex Factors
dc.subject Social Class
dc.subject Surveys and Questionnaires
dc.subject Syria
dc.title Work-related injuries among Syrian refugee child workers in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon: A gender-sensitive analysis
dc.type Article

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